Digestive System


The digestive system provides the body’s means of processing food and transforming nutrients into energy. The digestive system consists of the buccal cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine ending in the rectum and anus. These parts together are called the alimentary canal (digestive tract).

Digestive System Glossary

  1. Mouth: the first part of the digestive system, where food enters the body. Chewing and salivary enzymes in the mouth are the beginning of the digestive process (breaking down the food). Mouth Cavity The first space of the mouth is the mouth cavity, bounded laterally and in front by the alveolar arches (containing the teeth), and posteriorly by the isthmus of the fauces. The oral cavity is also known as the mouth which swallows food and drinks that then go down the esophagus and into the stomach.
  2. Appendix: a small sac located on the cecum.
  3. Ascending Colon: the part of the large intestine that runs upwards; it is located after the cecum.
  4. Bile: a digestive chemical that is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and secreted into the small intestine.
  5. Cecum: the first part of the large intestine; the appendix is connected to the cecum.
  6. Chyme: food in the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids. Chyme goes on to the small intestine for further digestion.
  7. Descending Colon: the part of the large intestine that runs downwards after the transverse colon and before the sigmoid colon.
  8. Duodenum: the first part of the small intestine; it is C-shaped and runs from the stomach to the jejunum.
  9. Epiglottis: the flap at the back of the tongue that keeps chewed food from going down the windpipe to the lungs. When you swallow, the epiglottis automatically closes. When you breathe, the epiglottis opens so that air can go in and out of the windpipe.
  10. Esophagus: the long tube between the mouth and the stomach. It uses rhythmic muscle movements (called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the stomach.
  11. Gall Bladder: a small, sac-like organ located by the duodenum. It stores and releases bile (a digestive chemical that is produced in the liver) into the small intestine. ileum – the last part of the small intestine before the large intestine begins.
  12. Jejunum: the long, coiled mid-section of the small intestine; it is between the duodenum and the ileum.
  13. Liver: a large organ located above and in front of the stomach. It filters toxins from the blood and makes bile (which breaks down fats) and some blood proteins.
  14. Pancreas: an enzyme-producing gland located below the stomach and above the intestines. Enzymes from the pancreas help in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the small intestine.
  15. Peristalsis: rhythmic muscle movements that force food in the esophagus from the throat into the stomach. Peristalsis is involuntary – you cannot control it. It is also what allows you to eat and drink while upside-down.
  16. Rectum: the lower part of the large intestine, where feces are stored before they are excreted.
  17. Salivary Glands: glands located in the mouth that produce saliva. Saliva contains enzymes that break down carbohydrates (starch) into smaller molecules.
  18. Sigmoid Colon: the part of the large intestine between the descending colon and the rectum.
  19. Stomach: a sack-like, muscular organ that is attached to the esophagus. Both chemical and mechanical digestion takes place in the stomach. When food enters the stomach, it is churned in a bath of acids and enzymes.
  20. Transverse Colon: the part of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the abdomen.
  21. Anus: the opening at the end of the digestive system from which feces (waste) exits the body.
  22. The gastrointestinal system is essentially a long tube running right through the body, with specialized sections that are capable of digesting material put in at the top end and extracting any useful components from it, then expelling the waste products at the bottom end. The whole system is under hormonal control, with the presence of food in the mouth triggering off a cascade of hormonal actions; when there is food in the stomach, different hormones activate acid secretion, increased gut motility, enzyme release, etc.
    Nutrients from the GI tract are not processed on-site; they are taken to the liver to be broken down further, stored, or distributed.
    Once food has been chewed and mixed with saliva in the mouth, it is swallowed and passes down the esophagus. The esophagus has a stratified squamous epithelial lining (SE) which protects the esophagus from trauma; the submucosa (SM) secretes mucus from mucous glands (MG) which aid the passage of food down the esophagus. The lumen of the esophagus is surrounded by layers of muscle (M)- voluntary in the top third, progressing to involuntary in the bottom third- and food is propelled into the stomach by waves of peristalsis.

The Stomach

The stomach is a ‘J-shaped organ, with two openings- the oesophageal and the duodenal- and four regions- the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. Each region performs different functions; the fundus collects digestive gases, the body secretes pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid, and the pylorus is responsible for mucus, gastrin, and pepsinogen secretion.

The stomach has five major functions;

Temporary food storage

Control the rate at which food enters the duodenum

Acid secretion and antibacterial action

Fluidisation of stomach contents

Preliminary digestion with pepsin, lipases, etc.

The Small Intestine

The small intestine is the site where most of the chemical and mechanical digestion is carried out, and where virtually all of the absorption of useful materials is carried out. The whole of the small intestine is lined with an absorptive mucosal type, with certain modifications for each section. The intestine also has a smooth muscle wall with two layers of muscle; rhythmical contractions force products of digestion through the intestine (peristalsis). There are three main sections to the small intestine;

  1. The Duodenum: forms a ‘C’ shape around the head of the pancreas. Its main function is to neutralize the acidic gastric contents (called ‘chyme’) and to initiate further digestion; Brunner’s glands in the submucosa secrete an alkaline mucus which neutralizes the chyme and protects the surface of the duodenum.
  2. The Jejunum :
  3. The Ileum: The jejunum and the ileum are the greatly coiled parts of the small intestine, and together are about 4-6 meters long; the junction between the two sections is not well-defined. The mucosa of these sections is highly folded (the folds are called plicae), increasing the surface area available for absorption dramatically.

Anatomy of the Liver

The liver is the largest organ in the body, normally weighing about 1.5kg (although this can increase to over 10kg in chronic cirrhosis). The liver is the main organ of metabolism and energy production; its other main functions include

Bile production

Storage of iron, vitamins, and trace elements


conversion of waste products for excretion by the kidneys

The liver is functionally divided into two lobes, right and left. The external division is marked on the front of the liver by the falciform ligament, which joins the coronary ligament at the superior margin of the liver. The liver is unusual in that it has a double blood supply; the right and left hepatic arteries to carry oxygenated blood to the liver, and the portal vein carries venous blood from the GI tract to the liver.

Surface Markings of the Liver

When examining a patient, it is important to recognize where the internal organs lie relative to the surface anatomy you can see. The liver can essentially be visualized as a triangle, with its upper margin below the nipples on either side of the chest, and the lower margin making a line from just above the tenth rib on the right side to below the nipple on the left side. The superior surface of the liver lies just below the diaphragm; this means that the lower margin of the liver will move downwards on inspiration, and this can be palpated. As the liver is also a very dense organ, it is very dull to percussion and you can easily percuss out the borders of the liver if palpation is unsuccessful.
The gallbladder area can be palpated around the tip of the right ninth rib. The normal gallbladder is impalpable; it only becomes palpable when distended with stones or bile, and the area will become very tender if there is inflammation present.

Digestive system disorders

  1. Indigestion: is often a sign of an underlying problem, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, or gallbladder disease, rather than a condition of its own. Also called dyspepsia, indigestion is a term used to describe a feeling of fullness or discomfort during or after a meal. It can be accompanied by burning or pain in the upper stomach.
  2. Gas (flatus): burping and bloating are all normal conditions. Gas is made in the stomach and intestines as your body breaks down food into energy. Gas and burping may sometimes be embarrassing. Bloating, which is a feeling of fullness in the abdomen, can make you uncomfortable
  3. Acidity/ Heartburn: is a feeling of burning, warmth, heat, or pain that often starts in the upper abdomen just beneath the lower breastbone (sternum). This discomfort may spread in waves upward into your throat, and you may have a sour taste in your mouth. Heartburn is sometimes called indigestion, acid regurgitation, sour stomach, or pyrosis. It is not caused by problems with your heart, although sometimes heart problems can feel like heartburn. See a picture of heartburn.

Heartburn may cause problems with swallowing, burping, nausea, or bloating. These symptoms can sometimes last up to 2 hours or longer. In some people, heartburn symptoms may cause sleep problems, a chronic cough, asthma, wheezing, or choking episodes.

Heartburn usually is worse after eating or made worse by lying down or bending over. It gets better if you sit or stand up.

Almost everyone will have troubles with heartburn now and then.


What Are the Symptoms of Indigestion?

The symptoms of indigestion include:

Bloating (full feeling)

Belching and gas

Nausea and vomiting

Acidic taste

Growling stomach

Burning in the stomach or upper abdomen

Abdominal pain

These symptoms may increase in times of stress.

People often have heartburn (a burning sensation deep in the chest) along with indigestion. But heartburn is caused by stomach acids rising into the esophagus.

Who Is at Risk for Indigestion?

People of all ages and of both sexes are affected by indigestion. It’s extremely common. An individual’s risk increases with excess alcohol consumption, use of drugs that may irritate the stomach (such as aspirin), other conditions where there is an abnormality in the digestive tract such as an ulcer, and emotional problems such as anxiety or depression.

What Causes Indigestion?

Indigestion has many causes, including:

  1. Diseases:



Stomach cancer (rare)

Gastroparesis (a condition where the stomach doesn’t empty properly; this often occurs in diabetics)

Stomach infections

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pancreatitis

Thyroid disease

  1. Medications:

Aspirin and many other painkillers

Estrogen and oral contraceptives

Steroid medications

Certain antibiotics

Thyroid medicines

  1. Lifestyle:

Eating too much, eating too fast, eating high-fat foods, or eating during stressful situations

Drinking too much alcohol

Cigarette smoking

Stress and fatigue

Swallowing excessive air when eating may increase the symptoms of belching and bloating, which are often associated with indigestion. Sometimes people have persistent indigestion that is not related to any of these factors. This type of indigestion is called functional, or non-ulcer dyspepsia.

Try not to chew with your mouth open, talk while chewing, or eat too fast. This causes you to swallow too much air, which can aggravate indigestion.

Drink fluids after rather than during meals.

Avoid late-night eating.

Try to relax after meals.

Avoid spicy foods.

Stop smoking.

Avoid alcoholic beverages.

Eat small meals so the stomach does not have to work as hard or as long.

Eat slowly.

Avoid foods that contain high amounts of acids, such as citrus fruits and tomatoes.

Reduce or avoid foods and beverages that contain caffeine.

Avoid wearing tight-fitting garments because they tend to compress the stomach, which can cause its contents to enter the esophagus.

Do not exercise with a full stomach. Rather, exercise before a meal or at least one hour after eating a meal.

Wait at least 3 hours after your last meal of the day before going to bed.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of the intestines. It causes belly pain, cramping or bloating, and diarrhea or constipation. Irritable bowel syndrome is a long-term problem, but there are things you can do to reduce your symptoms.

What causes IBS?

It is not clear what causes irritable bowel syndrome, and the cause may be different for different people. Some ideas for what causes IBS include problems with the way signals are sent between the brain and the digestive tract, problems digesting certain foods, and stress or anxiety. People with IBS may have unusually sensitive intestines or problems with the way the muscles of the intestines move. For some people with IBS, certain foods, stress, hormonal changes, and some antibiotics may trigger pain and other symptoms.

What are the symptoms?

The main symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are belly pain with constipation or diarrhea. Other common symptoms are bloating, mucus in the stools, or a feeling that you have not completely emptied your bowels.
Many people with IBS go back and forth between having constipation and having diarrhea. For most people, one of these happens more often than the other. o IBS is quite common. Most people’s symptoms are so mild that they never see a doctor for treatment. But some people may have troublesome symptoms, especially stomach cramps, bloating, and diarrhea.

How is IBS Diagnosed?

Most of the time, doctors can diagnose irritable bowel syndrome from the symptoms and past health and will do a physical exam. In some cases, you may need other tests, such as stool analysis or blood tests

How is it Treated?

Irritable bowel syndrome is a long-term condition, but there are things you can do to manage your symptoms. Treatment usually includes making changes in your diet and lifestyle, such as avoiding foods that trigger your symptoms, getting regular exercise, and managing your stress.
There are also medicines that may help with your symptoms. If diet and lifestyle changes do not help enough on their own, your doctor may prescribe medicines for pain, diarrhea, or constipation


Diarrhea describes bowel movements (stools) that are loose and watery. It is very common and usually not serious. Many people will have diarrhea once or twice each year. It typically lasts two to three days and can be treated with over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. Some people have diarrhea often as part of irritable bowel syndrome or other chronic diseases of the large intestine.

Doctors classify diarrhea as “osmotic,” “secretory,” or “exudative.”

What Causes Diarrhea?

The most common cause of diarrhea is a virus that infects the gut. The infection usually lasts for two days and is sometimes called “intestinal flu” or “stomach flu.” Diarrhea may also be caused by:

Infection by bacteria (the cause of most types of food poisoning)

Infections by other organisms

Eating foods that upset the digestive system

Allergies to certain foods


Radiation therapy

Diseases of the intestines (Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis)

Malabsorption (where the body is unable to adequately absorb certain nutrients from the diet)


Some cancers

Laxative abuse

Alcohol abuse

Digestive tract surgery


Competitive running

Diarrhea may also follow constipation, especially for people who have irritable bowel syndrome.

What Are the Symptoms of Diarrhea?

Symptoms of diarrhea can be broken down into uncomplicated (or non-serious) diarrhea and complicated diarrhea. Complicated diarrhea may be a sign of a more serious illness.

A. Symptoms of uncomplicated diarrhea include:

Abdominal bloating or cramps

Thin or loose stools

Watery stool

Sense of urgency to have a bowel movement

Nausea and vomiting

B. In addition to the symptoms described above, the symptoms of complicated diarrhea include:

Blood, mucus, or undigested food in the stool

Weight loss


Contact your doctor if you have prolonged diarrhea or a fever that lasts more than 24 hours. Also, see your doctor promptly if the vomiting prevents you from drinking liquids to replace lost fluids.

How Is Diarrhea Treated?

If you have a mild case of diarrhea, you can just let it run its course, or you can treat it with over-the-counter medicine. Common brand names include Pepto-Bismol, Imodium A-D, and Kaopectate, which are available as liquids or tablets. Follow the instructions on the package.

In addition, you should drink at least six 8-ounce glasses of fluid per day. Choose fruit juice without pulp, broth, or soda (without caffeine). Chicken broth (without the fat), tea with honey, and sports drinks are also good choices. Instead of drinking liquids with your meals, drink liquids between meals. Drink small amounts of fluids frequently.


Constipation is one of those topics few like to talk about. If you’ve suffered from this problem, though, you know it can be both painful and frustrating.

Almost everyone gets constipated at some time during his or her life. Though not usually serious, constipation can be a concern.

What Is Constipation?

Constipation occurs when bowel movements become difficult or less frequent. The normal length of time between bowel movements ranges widely from person to person. Some people have bowel movements three times a day; others, only one or two times a week. Going longer than three days without a bowel movement is too long. After three days, the stool or feces become harder and more difficult to pass.

You are considered constipated if you have two or more of the following for at least 3 months:

Straining during a bowel movement more than 25% of the time

Hard stools more than 25% of the time

Incomplete evacuation more than 25% of the time

Two or fewer bowel movements in a week

What Causes Constipation?

Constipation is usually caused by a disorder of bowel function rather than a structural problem. Common causes of constipation include:

Inadequate water intake

Inadequate fiber in the diet

A disruption of regular diet or routine; traveling

Inadequate activity or exercise or immobility

Eating large amounts of dairy products


Resisting the urge to have a bowel movement, which is sometimes the result of pain from hemorrhoids

Overuse of laxatives (stool softeners) which, over time, weaken the bowel muscles


Neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis

Antacid medicines containing calcium or aluminum

Medicines (especially strong pain medicines, such as narcotics, antidepressants, or iron pills)

Eating disorders

Irritable bowel syndrome


Colon cancer

In some cases, lack of good nerve and muscle function in the bowel may also be a cause of constipation.

How To Prevent Constipation?

There are several things you can do to prevent constipation. Among them:

Eat a well-balanced diet with plenty of fiber. Good sources of fiber are fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole-grain bread, and cereal (especially bran). Fiber and water help the colon pass stool.

Drink 1 1/2 to 2 quarts of water and other fluids a day (unless fluid restricted for another medical condition). Liquids that contain caffeine, such as coffee and soft drinks, seem to have a dehydrating effect and may need to be avoided until your bowel habits return to normal. Some people may need to avoid milk, as dairy products may be constipating for them.

Exercise regularly.

Move your bowels when you feel the urge.


There is no clear evidence to suggest that the stress of modern life or a steady diet of fast food causes ulcers in the stomach and small intestine, but they are nonetheless common in our society: About one out of every 10 Americans will suffer from the burning, gnawing abdominal pain of a peptic (or gastric) ulcer sometime in life.

Peptic ulcers are holes or breaks in the protective lining of the duodenum (the upper part of the small intestine) or the stomach — areas that come into contact with stomach acids and enzymes. Duodenal ulcers are more common than stomach ulcers

While excessive stomach acid secretion certainly plays a role in the development of ulcers, a relatively recent theory holds that bacterial infection is the primary cause of peptic ulcers

Other factors also seem to contribute to ulcer formation. Overuse of over-the-counter painkillers (such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen), heavy alcohol use, and smoking exacerbate and may promote the development of ulcers.

Other studies show that stomach ulcers are more likely to develop in older people. This may be because arthritis is prevalent in the elderly, and alleviating arthritis pain can mean taking daily doses of aspirin or ibuprofen.

Also, for no known reason, people with type A blood are more likely to develop cancerous stomach ulcers.

Duodenal ulcers tend to appear in people with type O blood, possibly because they do not produce the substance on the surface of blood cells that may protect the lining of the duodenum.

Fortunately, peptic ulcers are relatively easy to treat; in many cases, they are cured with antibiotics, antacids, and other drugs that reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach. There are also a variety of self-help and alternative treatments that can aid in relieving pain

Tips for Living With Ulcers

If you have an ulcer, be cautious when choosing over-the-counter pain relievers. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen may not only irritate the ulcer but also prevent a bleeding ulcer from healing. Your best choice may be acetaminophen (Tylenol, for example), which does not cause or promote stomach ulcers.

 Don’t overdose on iron supplements. Although people with bleeding ulcers can develop anemia and may need to take iron as a treatment, taking too much can irritate the stomach lining and the ulcer. Ask your doctor how much iron you need.

Learn how to deal with stress. While there is no evidence that stress causes ulcers, it can exacerbate existing ones. Practicing relaxation techniques — including deep breathing, guided imagery, and moderate exercise — can help alleviate stress.

Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a disease that causes inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the lining of the large intestine. It usually affects the lower section (sigmoid colon) and the rectum. But it can affect the entire colon. In general, the more of the colon that’s affected, the worse the symptoms will be.

The disease can affect people of any age. But most people who have it are diagnosed before the age of 30.

What causes ulcerative colitis?

Experts aren’t sure what causes it. They think it might be caused by the immune system overreacting to normal bacteria in the digestive tract. Or other kinds of bacteria and viruses may cause it.

You are more likely to get ulcerative colitis if other people in your family have it.

What are the symptoms?

The main symptoms are:

Belly pain or cramps


Bleeding from the rectum

Some people also may have a fever, may not feel hungry, and may lose weight. In severe cases, people may have diarrhea 10 to 20 times a day. The disease can also cause other problems, such as joint pain, eye problems, or liver disease. In most people, the symptoms come and go. Some people go for months or years without symptoms (remission). Then they will have a flare-up. About 5 to 10 out of 100 people with ulcerative colitis have symptoms all the time.

How is ulcerative colitis diagnosed?

Doctors ask about the symptoms, do a physical exam, and do a number of tests. Testing can help the doctor rule out other problems that can cause similar symptoms, such as Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and diverticulitis.

Tests that may be done include:

A colonoscopy. In this test, a doctor uses a thin, lighted tool to look at the inside of your entire colon. At the same time, the doctor may take a sample (biopsy) of the lining of the colon.

Blood tests, which look for infection or inflammation.

Stool sample testing to look for blood, infection, and white blood cells.

How is it treated?

If your symptoms are mild, you may only need to use over-the-counter medicines for diarrhea (such as Imodium). Many people need prescription medicines, such as aminosalicylates, steroid medicines, or other medicines that reduce the body’s immune response. These medicines can stop or reduce symptoms and prevent flare-ups.

Some people find that certain foods make their symptoms worse. If this happens to you, it makes sense to not eat those foods. But be sure to eat a healthy, varied diet to keep your weight up and to stay strong. If you have severe symptoms and medicines don’t help, you may need surgery to remove your colon. Removing the colon cures ulcerative colitis. It also prevents colon cancer.

Other treatment choices:

Many people with ulcerative colitis consider nontraditional or complementary medicine in addition to prescription medicines. They may turn to these other treatments because there is no cure other than the removal of the colon.

Treatments include:

Special diets or nutritional supplements, such as probiotics.

Fatty acids found in oily fish, such as salmon and tuna.

Vitamin supplements, such as vitamins D and B12.


Stimulation of the feet, hands, and ears to try to affect parts of the body (reflexology).

Chiropractic therapy.

Stool sample testing to look for blood, infection, and white blood cells.

Probiotics and fatty acids are the most promising complementary therapies being studied for ulcerative colitis


Why do I need to register or sign in for WebMD to save?

We will provide you with a dropdown of all your saved articles when you are registered and signed in. Gallstones form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver. The gallbladder aids in the digestive process by storing bile and secreting it into the small intestine when food enters. Bile is a fluid produced by the liver and is made up of several substances, including cholesterol, bilirubin, and bile salts.

What Are Gallstones?

Gallstones are pieces of solid material that form in the gallbladder. These stones develop because cholesterol and pigments in bile sometimes form hard particles.

What Causes Gallstones?

Several factors may come together to create gallstones, including:



Decreased motility (movement) of the gallbladder


Gallstones can form when there is an imbalance in the substances that make up bile. For instance, cholesterol stones may develop as a result of too much cholesterol in the bile. Another cause may be the inability of the gallbladder to empty properly.

Pigment stones are more common in people with certain medical conditions, such as cirrhosis (a liver disease in which scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue) or blood diseases such as sickle cell anemia.

How Are Gallstones Treated?

Gallstones are usually treated with surgery to take out the gallbladder. The traditional operation is called an open cholecystectomy. A newer procedure, called laparoscopic cholecystectomy, is less invasive, has fewer complications, and is used more often.


Piles or hemorrhoids are caused due to swelling and inflammation of the veins present in the rectum and anus.

There are two types of piles:

A. External: These are present outside the anal verge.

B. Internal: These occur inside the rectum.

What causes piles?

Certain factors which predispose a person for piles include;

Genetic tendency (like due to weak rectal veins, walls)

The poor tone of muscle in the rectal region

Constipation (hard stool)


Inactive or sedentary lifestyle

Chronic or prolonged cough


Excessive use of laxatives or enemas

Weight lifting habitually

The symptoms of piles vary depending upon the site of piles, duration of symptoms, and your overall health

The external piles cause swelling outside the anus, irritation, and itching. In some people, they can be painful sometimes. They usually do not bleed.

Internal piles bleed during the passage of hard stools but they are usually not painful. At times there can be a slimy discharge of mucus from the piles. Based on their severity they can be classified into four grades (1 to 4).

If you notice bleeding when you pass stool consult a doctor for advice.

Ayurveda Remedies for piles is used to:

Reduce constipation (the commonest predisposing factor for piles).

Relieve pain associated with piles and reduce the piles.

Ayurveda medicines or herbs useful for reducing constipation are asafoetida, fennel, and cumin. Ghee, buttermilk, and green leafy vegetables in the diet can also reduce constipation. Several ayurvedic remedies for the treatment of piles are available. Some of the commonly used and effective ayurvedic herbs are:

Carrot (Daucus carota): It is effective in reducing the bleeding from piles (can be taken raw or cooked).

Garlic (Allium sativum): It is effective in reducing the bleeding from piles and is helpful to stop the growth of bleeding piles. Insert the garlic high up in the rectum so that it remains inside the rectum overnight.

Other herbs prescribed for treatment of piles are trikatu, cassia fistula, mimosa pudica, ailanthus excels, blumea balsamifera,and semicarpus anacardium.

Homeopathic treatment for piles

Some of the commonly used remedies for the treatment of piles are:

Hamamelis –Q: Effective in controlling bleeding due to piles

Aesculus: Useful in piles with acute pain in the back

Collinsonia: Useful for chronic painful bleeding piles associated with pain

Graphics: Helpful for piles and fissures caused due to hard stools

Ratanhia: Useful for piles with severe pain

Some other commonly used medicines include Sulphur, Nux. Vomica, silicea.


Fistula is a deadly disease that occurs most commonly on the rectum. A yellow liquid gets formed on the area which is very painful. An anal fistula is generally treated through surgery but it is known to recur after some time. You need to be very conscious of this fact when looking to get your condition treated. Ayurvedic remedies for fistula are known to cure the disorder for good. Several techniques and therapeutic procedures are available in Ayurveda that eliminates the problem from its root.
Bhagandara is the name by which the fistula is known in Ayurvedic practice. Three kinds of the disease are recognized with different treatments. One of the important therapies for curing fistula in Ayurveda is Kshar Sutra. This involves cutting up some tissues and these take time to heal. Before performing this procedure, several herbs are given to the patient such as Kadali Kshar, Apamarg Kshar, Nimb Kshar, Papaiya Ksheer, and Snuhi Ksheer.
Although Ksheer Sutra is a slow process on the whole it is getting global recognition gradually as a very effective treatment for fistula. The great advantage of undergoing this treatment is that the patient does not need to be admitted to a hospital. He can carry on with his regular everyday work without any trouble.
Another Ayurvedic treatment for fistula is known as Enema. In this treatment, a hot bath is given to the patient suffering from it. Lower body parts are involved in this therapy. A few other types of fomentation are also recommended. The patient needs to be constantly checked for any signs of suffering from diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, TB, or any other.
Agnikarma is another treatment for fistula in Ayurveda. This involves the use of hot iron or caustic agent for destroying the affected tissues.
The main reason for rising of this disease these days is the unhealthy lifestyle which people have started to lead. It is expected that with Ayurvedic remedies for fistula treatment becoming popular, the lifestyle recommended by the holistic system of medicine will also gain ground.