First Aid

First Aid & Emergency Treatment Guide

First Aid is the temporary help given to an injured or a sick person before professional medical treatment can be provided. This timely assistance, comprising of simple medical techniques, is most critical to the victims and is, often, life saving. Any layperson can be trained to administer first aid, which can be carried out using minimal equipment’s. Basic training in first aid skills should be taught in school, in work places and, in general, be learnt by all, as it is mandatory to our modern and stressful life.


What is ACNE ?
1. It is a group of skin rashes
2. Acne Vulgaris, popularly called pimples, affects face
3. Caused by blocked hair follicles
4. Commonly affects the young

1. Increase in sex hormones during puberty
2. Oil glands of skin produce more secretions
3. Dead cells and secretions block hair follicles causing infections
4. Infected follicles gets inflamed leading to acne

Factors that can worsen your Acne
1. Hormonal changes during menses.
2. Squeezing of pimples
3. Pollution and high humidity
4. Oily diet

Myths associated with the cause of Acne
1. Chocolates, junk food, dirty skin, and stress cause acne
2. No scientific backing for these myths

1. Consult a skin specialist or dermatologist
2. Common medications include –
Benzoyl peroxide
Salicylic acid
Sulfur drugs

Skin Care
1. Clean skin with mild Cleanser
2. Avoid squeezing of pimples
3. Avoid sunburn
4. Use oil-free cosmetics
5. Avoid fizzy drinks
6. Eat a balanced diet
7. Drink plenty of fluids


What is Anaphylaxis?
1. Severe, life- threatening allergic reaction
2. Occurs as a reaction to an allergen
3. Anaphylaxis releases various chemicals in body
4. Reactions occur in secs / mins of exposure
5. Occurs in 30 per 100,000 individuals per year

1. Food like nuts, milk, eggs, fish
2. Insect sting
3. Latex
4. Vaccines
5. Medications like antibiotics, anesthetics
6. Medications like antibiotics, anesthetics
7. Medications like antibiotics, anesthetics

What happens ?
1. On first exposure-allergen specific antibody, Ig-E, produced
2. On re-exposure, Ig-E triggers immune response
3. This immune response is anaphylaxis

1. Tingling / warm sensation
2. Itchiness / Rash
3. Swelling of areas around mouth / throat
4. Restricted air-ways
5. Reduced oxygen level in brain
6. Signs of asthma
7. Vomiting
8. Cramps
9. Diarrhea
10. Fluid–filled lungs
11. Low blood pressure
12. Palpitations / feeling faint
13. Loss of consciousness

Who is at risk?
1. Those with history of food allergy
2. Those with family history of allergies
3. Those who have experienced prior attack

1. If nauseated, lie down on the side
2. If feeling faint, lie down, legs raised
3. In case of breathing difficulty, sit up
4. First time patients should be hospital treated
5. Epinephrine injections – effective treatment
6. Continuous monitoring mandatory
7. Severity/ response / prior episodes determine treatment

1. Avoid allergens as far as possible
2. Those at risk should carry adrenalin auto-injector
3. Inform school authorities, if children at risk
4. Children should wear food allergy badges
5. Emergency protocols necessary in schools/ work place
6. Educating the public is vital

Animal Bites

1. Domestic pets cause more bites
2. Dogs more likely to bite, cats more infectious
3. Risk of rabies with non-immunized pets / wild animals

1. Skin break
2. Bruise / puncture
3. Cuts
4. Bleeding
5. Swelling and redness of the area
6. Oozing of fluid

1. Calm the affected person
2. Wash hands before attending to wound
3. Wash wound with soap & running water
4. Apply antibiotic ointment
5. Dress using sterile bandage
6. After first aid, medical treatment must be sought quickly
7. Suturing may be required
8. Tetanus booster / antibiotics required
9. Treatment depends on type / location of wound

1. Avoid keeping wild animals as pets
2. Choose a pet that is friendly to children
3. Train the pet to obey commands
4. Vaccinate your pet
5. When children are around, pets supervision is required
6. Avoid leaving infants alone with pets


1. It is a chronic lung disease
2. It creates narrowing of air passages of the lung
3. Produces difficulty in breathing.

1. Wheezing
2. Cough and cold
3. Tightness in the chest
4. Sticky mucus
5. Disturbed sleep
6. Breathlessness

1. Hereditary factors
2. Environmental factors like dust, mite, pollen
3. Occupational exposure to irritants
4. Dietary Changes
5. Lack of exercise

Asthma Triggering Factors
1. Colds and viruses
2. Irritants like Cigarette smoke, scent, pollution
3. Cold air or change in weather
4. Physical exertion
5. Allergens like dust, mite, pollen, furs
6. Some medications
7. Infections
8. Stress

Myths about asthma
1. It is contagious
2. It cannot be controlled
3. Asthma medicines are addictive

Management of Asthma
1. Asthma cannot be cured, but it can be controlled
2. Keep the house clean
3. Use hardwood floors or tile
4. Avoid carpets in house
5. Avoid pets with fur or feathers
6. Use clean bed sheets & pillow covers
7. Use bed made of synthetic materials
8. Use air conditioner
9. Maintain low humidity at home

1. Anti-inflammatory drugs include:
Steroid Inhalers
Sodium Cromoglycate
2. Treatment –Bronchodilators
3. Common bronchodilators include:
Salbutamol Inhalers
Terbutaline Tabs
4. Consult your Pulmonologist

Famous sports person with asthma
1. Ian Botham (Cricketer)
2. Jackie Joyner Kersee (Athlete)
3. Mark Spitz (Swimmer)

Back Pain

What is Back Pain ?
1. Short-term, acute pain in the back
2. Indicates that body is under stress

1. Bones and ligaments of spine
2. Muscles and nerves of the Back

Back pain triggered by
1. Poor posture
2. Inappropriate footwear
3. Incorrect walking habits
4. Strained muscles
5. Prolonged sitting
6. Sleeping on soft mattresses
7. Kidney, bladder, or prostate disorders
8. Pregnancy
9. Constipation
10. Stress

Back pain triggered by
1. Rest in a comfortable position
2. Apply ice pack to affected area
3. Painkillers or relaxants may be used
4. Avoid strenuous exercise
5. Avoid pillows
6. Avoid sleeping on soft mattress

1. Anti-inflammatory drugs
2. Massage with hot/ cold packs
3. Massage with hot/ cold packs
4. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator(TENS)
5. Regular simple exercises
6. Consult an Orthopedician if:
Pain persists
Difficulty in passing urine
Numbness or pain in legs or toes

1. Maintain good posture
2. Do not smoke
3. Avoid overstretching body
4. Reduce stress/ strain
5. Take breaks during work
6. Sit straight with lower back support
7. Use comfortable low-heeled shoes
8. Do stretching exercises

Black Eye

What is Black eye?
1. A bruise in the tissues around the eye/eyes
2. Results from injury to face/head
3. Causes swelling and dark coloration of eye
4. Hence, “black eye”
5. Usually a minor problem
6. Sometimes it indicates a serious injury
7. One or both eye affected

1. Blow to eye / nose
2. Facial surgical procedures
3. Allergies
4. Bites

1. Discoloration of eye
2. Swelling
3. Blow to nose causes swelling of eye
4. Head injuries may blacken/swell eyes
5. Pain
6. Blurry vision due to swelling
7. Headache

Symptoms of severity
1. Persistent headache
2. Double vision
3. Inability to move eye/eyes
4. Blood on eye surface
5. Blood/fluid issue from nose, ears
6. Loss of consciousness
7. Loss of sight

1. Black eyes generally heals within a few days
2. Consult with specialist for serious injuries

Home remedy
1. Apply ice for 20 min/hour, first two days
2. If not better, apply warm compress once in two hours
3. Do not use ice directly
4. Wrap ice in cloth or use commercial pack
5. Continue cold compress till severity eases
6. Take acetaminophen, for pain relief
7. Avoid aspirins / non-steroidal medications
8. These medications may cause bleeding
9. Stay away from strenuous activity
10. See a medical specialist as soon as possible

Treatment for complications
1. For head injuries-Neurosurgeon
2. For nose injuries-ENT specialist
3. For eye injuries-Ophthalmologist
4. For face
5. Injuries/disfigurement-Plastic surgeon
6. Carry out follow-up as advised by doctor

1. Protect your eyes always
2. Ensure safety at home by removing unwanted objects
3. Avoid fist fights

Bleeding Gums

1. Progressive disease affecting oral cavity
2. Characterized by chronic bleeding of gums
3. May lead to tooth loss

1. Poor oral hygiene
2. Inadequate plaque removal
3. Oral trauma, like toothbrush abrasion
4. Inflammation caused by infection
5. Vitamin C / K deficiency
6. Hot food
7. Chemical irritants
8. Leukemia
9. Pregnancy

1. Apply pressure using ice-pack
2. Mouth rinse: Pinch of salt in lukewarm water
3. Rinse twice a day to reduce swelling
4. Consult a dentist if bleeding continues
5. Avoid aspirin intake
6. Massage gums regularly
7. Reline poorly fitted dentures
8. Take vitamin supplements if necessary

1. Avoid Tobacco
2. Avoid snacking between meals
3. Reduce Carbohydrate- rich food
4. Remove plaque every 6 months
5. Brush teeth using soft-bristled brush
6. Floss teeth regularly


What are Blisters?
1. Occurs due to friction caused by constant rubbing of shoes / clothes
2. Outer skin layer separates from inner layer
3. The space in-between fills up with fluid
4. Common in athletes, trekkers, rowers
5. Also seen in people using new shoes

Fever Blisters
1. Fever blisters appear in /around mouth
2. Fever blisters caused by virus, Herpes Simplex
3. Type-1 Herpes virus usually involved in fever blisters
4. These blisters are contagious
5. Recurrent episodes may occur
6. Recurrence due to stress/illness/injury/sunlight

1. Bubble-like structures on skin
2. Redness over the area
3. Itching
4. Pain

1. Make a hole at the edge of blister
2. Use a sterilized needle or pin
3. Pin/needle sterilized by passing over flame
4. Drain the accumulated fluid
5. Keep skin intact to prevent infection
6. Clean blister with gauze containing iodine/alcohol
7. Apply antibiotic ointment
8. Cover with adhesive bandage for small blister
9. Use porous, bandage for large ones
10. Do not puncture blister if painless
11. Do not puncture a blood-filled blister
12. Blisters disappear in a few days time
13. Diabetics should consult doctor

Managing for fever (Oral) blisters
1. No permanent cure/vaccination for Herpes infection
2. Keep blisters dry & free of infection
3. Eat a bland diet

1. Wear the right size shoe
2. Cover the potential area with taping
3. Keep feet dry always
4. Avoid touching blisters
5. Avoid contact with an infected person
6. Avoid stressful situations

Bruises (Hematoma)

1. Bruises are injuries to the soft tissue
2. It is an ‘area of discoloration’ on the skin
3. Other names – Hematoma, Contusion
4. Can last for days to several months

1. Sports Injuries
2. Accidents
3. Falls
4. Blows from objects/people
5. Chances increase if taking medications, like Aspirin

1. Subcutaneous-underneath the skin
2. Intramuscular – within the underlying muscles
3. Periosteal-bruise related to bone

Related events
1. Small veins and capillaries under the skin breaks
2. Blood escapes and collects under skin
3. In the beginning bruises look purplish or red
4. In 2 days it may change to black or blue color
5. It changes to a green/yellow color in 5 days
6. Changes to a brown shade in 10-14 days
7. It further lightens and fades away
8. The changing colors indicates red cell metabolism

1. Pain
2. Swelling
3. Discoloration

1. Most bruises vanish in 2 weeks time
2. No bandage required if skin is not broken
3. Keep bruised area raised
4. Apply cold compress, ½ hr to one hr at a time
5. Continue this for two days
6. Avoid draining the bruise using needle
7. Do not apply ice directly on skin
8. Can take pain killing medications, like acetaminophen
9. Avoid using the bruised part
10. For more serious injury consult a doctor
11. Consult also in case of spontaneous injury/infection
12. Protein-bioflavonoids-Vit C rich food helps healing

1. Teach children safety measures
2. Avoid falls around house
3. Wear seat belts while driving
4. Wear helmet while riding
5. While sporting, pad frequently- bruised areas


What are burns?
1. Injuries due to heat/ chemicals/ electricity/ radiation
2. Common heat injuries due to fire, hot liquids, steam
3. Burns due to heat / chemicals – through skin contact
4. Severe burns affect muscles, fat and bones
5. Older people/ children – particularly vulnerable

Categories of burns
1. First, second and third degree
2. Categorization depends on severity of tissue damage
3. Check extent of burn before deciding self treatment
4. Seek help if burn is over a couple of inches in diameter
5. If it involves large sections of the hands, feet, face, groin or buttocks, or a major joint

First-degree burns
1. Injuries are superficial / mild
2. Swelling& redness of the injured area
3. Pain develops
4. No blisters seen
5. Burned area becomes white on touch
6. Takes 3-6 days to heal

1. Remove patient from heat source
2. Remove the burnt clothing
3. Run cool water over burnt area
4. Gently clean the injured area
5. Gently dry
6. Apply anti biotic such as Silver Sulphadiazine
7. Use a sterile bandage to cover burns
8. Take tetanus vaccination, if required

Second-degree burns
1. Burns extends to middle skin layer, dermis
2. Swelling, redness and pain observed
3. Burnt area may turn white on touch
4. Blisters develop, that ooze a clear fluid
5. Scars may develop
6. Restricts movement, if injury occurs at joint
7. Dehydration may occur
8. Healing time varies, depends on extent of injury

1. Clean the affected area thoroughly
2. Gently dry
3. Apply antibiotic cream over affected area
4. Make the patient lie down
5. Keep burnt body part at a raised level
6. Skin graft may be required
7. Physical therapy may be essential to aid mobility
8. Splints may be used to rest affected joints
9. Hospitalization is essential

Third-degree burns
1. Damage occurs to all 3 skin layers
2. Destroys adjacent hair follicles, sweat glands, nerve endings
3. Lack of pain due to destroyed nerves
4. Injured area does not turn white on touch
5. No blisters observed
6. Swelling occurs
7. Skin develops leathery texture
8. Discoloration of skin observed
9. Scars develop
10. Crusty surfaces (Eschars) develop-impairs circulation
11. Dehydration occurs resulting in shock
12. Symptoms may worsen with time
13. Disfigurement may result
14. Healing depends on extent of injury
15. 90% body surface injury results in death
16. 60% injury in elderly, fatal

1. Requires immediate hospital care
2. Dehydration treated through intravenous fluid supply
3. Oxygen is administered
4. Eschars are surgically opened
5. Periodically run clean cool water over burns
6. Nutritious diet helps to heal quickly
7. Regular monitoring essential
8. Mental Depression treated by anti-depressants

1. Install smoke alarm in your home
2. Employ ‘children friendly’ safety measures at home
3. Avoid synthetic clothing while cooking
4. Carry out fire drills at home and work place

Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

About Cardiac Arrest
1. Often caused by abnormal heart rhythm
2. This aberrant rhythm is ventricular fibrillation (VF)
3. During VF heart stops pumping blood
4. Patient may stop breathing
5. No pulse may be detected
6. A shock to the heart, called defibrillation, required
7. Defibrillation stops VF, restores heart function

What is CPR?
1. Emergency life-saving measure
2. Combination of rescue breathing & chest compressions
3. Done on unconscious/ non-breathing patient
4. Done on persons suffering cardiac arrest
5. Also for near-drowning/ asphyxiation/ trauma cases
6. CPR conducts defibrillation
7. Supports heart pumping for short duration
8. Allows oxygen to reach brain
9. Buys time till help arrives
10. More effective when done as early as possible

The Vital Steps Clear the airway
1. Assess if the person is conscious / breathing
2. Lay the person on his back on a hard surface
3. Using a head tilt -chin lift open his airway
4. Check for breathing sound
5. If not breathing, start mouth-to-mouth breathing

Mouth- to-mouth breathing
1. Pinch the person’s nostril shut
2. Seal his mouth with your own
3. Give the first breath, lasting one second
4. Watch if chest rises
5. If it rises, give second rescue breath
6. If it does not rise, give a head tilt- chin lift
7. Now give second rescue breath

Restore circulation through compression
1. Place heel of your palm on patient’s chest
2. Place your other hand above first
3. Keep elbows straight
4. Push down using upper body weight (compress)
5. Push hard and fast
6. After 30 compressions, clear airway
7. Give two rescue breaths
8. This is one cycle
9. Give 100 compressions /minute
10. Continue CPR till medical help arrives

CPR for children (under 8 yrs/ infant)
1. Procedure almost same as for adult
2. Following details should be incorporated
3. 20 breaths/min should be delivered
4. 100 compressions/minute should be given
5. Chest compressions – given with one hand

1. If done well, CPR saves life
2. Normalcy is restored in rescued person
3. CPR can also be ineffective, causing death
4. In some cases, causes injuries / damages

1. Ribs/heart/lungs/ liver may be injured
2. After CPR, medical attention should be given

CPR training
1. CPR – practical skill acquired through training
2. Professional training/ regular practice mandatory
3. CPR not confined to medical professionals
4. Community organizations, like Red Cross, conduct training

Chemical Splash in the Eye

When a toxic chemical is splashed into the eye(s), it could cause serious complications that may lead to blindness.

1. Working with chemicals in factories
2. Handling car battery
3. Working in research laboratories
4. Handling household chemicals

1. Irritation in eye
2. Eye Burns
3. Watering of the eye

1. Lay the person on the floor
2. Keep eye lids open forcibly
3. Use clean cold water to wash eyes gently
4. Keep washing steadily for at least 20 minutes
5. Rinse/wash hands thoroughly to remove chemical
6. If wearing contact lens remove them
7. Do not rub eyes
8. Do not use eye drops until told
9. Wear sunglasses to minimize irritation
10. After these basic steps seek medical help
11. Remember the name of chemical to tell doctor

1. If working with chemicals, wear protective face-mask
2. Wear eye goggles whenever required
3. Do not be careless with chemicals
4. Store household chemicals safely
5. Keep chemicals out of reach of children

Chest pain

Feeling of pain /discomfort between neck and abdomen
1. Chest pain raises fear of heart attack
2. Any tissue or organ in chest can cause pain
3. ‘Angina’ is heart- related chest pain

1. Some mild, others life threatening
2. Problems related to the heart
3. Asthma
4. Some mild, others life threatening
5. Problems related to the heart
6. Asthma
7. Pneumonia
8. Inflammation in the lung
9. Inflammation / strain of rib muscle
10. Anxiety
11. Indigestion / ulcers in stomach
12. Gall bladder stones
13. Shingles
14. Stress

1. Pain or pressure in chest area
2. May be accompanied by
Vomiting acid
Shortness of breath

1. If you have asthma or angina take your regular medications
2. Medicines like acetaminophen and ibuprofen may help
3. Consult a doctor if
Pain /fever /cough persists
Radiating pain occurs
Angina occurs at rest
The cough produces yellow -green phlegm
Pressure / tightness occurs
Shortness of breath
4. Hospitalization may be essential
5. Tests like ECG, may have to be taken

1. Maintain normal weight
2. Exercise regularly for 30 – 40 minutes
3. Check and control BP, diabetes, cholesterol
4. Avoid smoking
5. Eat low fat balanced diet
6. Get health check ups done regularly
7. Control stress

Chicken pox

What is Chicken Pox?
1. Common childhood disease
2. Infection mild in children
3. Serious in infants/ adults
4. Chances of recurrence present
5. World-wide incidence

1. Caused by virus, Varicella-Zoster
2. Spreads through air & contact
3. Contagious till blisters disappear

1. Rashes all over body
2. Fever
3. Blisters
4. Uncontrollable itching
5. Pneumonia
6. Brain damage in severe cases

1. Take Luke-warm baths
2. Avoid aspirin
3. Trim fingernails to avoid skin damage
4. Drink cold fluids
5. Acyclovir effectively treats chicken pox
6. Fever treated with Acetaminophen/ibuprofen
7. Consult a GP /child specialist if:
Rashes involve eyes
Fever is 103 °F or more
Infection persists

1. Infected person should remain home-bound
2. Vaccination
3. First dose given between 12-18 months
4. Vaccination should not be given to:
a. Those allergic to gelatin, neomycin
b. Pregnant women
c. The immuno-compromised


1. Occurs when foreign object is lodged in windpipe
2. This blocks oxygen supply to brain
3. In adults, choking occurs due to food
4. In children it also occurs on swallowing an object

1. Swallowing a large piece of food
2. Swallowing food that is not well chewed
3. Eating food quickly
4. Eating and talking
5. Consuming alcohol before a meal
6. Wearing dentures
7. Being careless about children
8. Walking / playing with food in mouth

1. Hands will grasp throat
2. Breathlessness
3. Noisy breathing
4. Inability to cough
5. Skin, nails and lips may turn blue
6. Loss of consciousness

1. Heimlich maneuver and CPR –2 techniques
2. If person is unable to talk, try Heimlich maneuver
3. Forces the diaphragm upto the lungs
4. Creates an artificial cough

Heimlich Maneuver on a standing person
1. Stand behind the person
2. Form a fist with one hand
3. Place fist below ribcage, thumb inward
4. Hold the fist with other hand
5. Keep arms off ribcage
6. Give four inward and upward thrust
7. Repeat till the object is ejected
8. Same method is used for a child too

Heimlich Maneuver On an Unconscious Person
1. If person is lying down, straddle the person with your knees
2. Place heel of one hand above waistline
3. Place other hand over the first
4. Give four inward and upward thrust
5. Repeat till object is coughed out

Heimlich Maneuver On an Infant
1. Place your forearm over your raised knees
2. Place the infant face down over your fore arm
3. Give four blows using the heel of your hand
4. Repeat till object comes out
5. If it does not work, turn the baby
6. Place two fingers an inch below the imaginary line connecting nipples
7. Give four thrusts forcefully to bring out the object
8. Repeat if required

1. While eating, concentrate on the task
2. Do not eat quickly, without chewing
3. Supervise children while they eat
4. Give easily chewable, soft food to children
5. Do not leave tiny objects within the reach of children

Corneal Abrasion

1. Cornea is outer layer of the eye
2. Tearing away of this layer leads to corneal abrasion.
3. Most common injury to the eye
4. Multiple nerve endings present in cornea, hence painful

1. A finger nail
2. Any sharp flying object like pencil, glass
3. Tiny particles, like sand
4. Contact lens

1. Pain
2. Redness of the eye
3. Blurred vision
4. Discomfort in the eye
5. Difficulty in opening eyes
6. Head ache
7. Discharge of tears

1. Antibiotic used to prevent infection
2. Examination is done after using an anesthetic
3. Pain returns after anesthetic is stopped
4. Repeated usage of anesthetic is harmful
5. Eye ointments, pain relievers are provided
6. A ‘patch’ may be put on the eyes
7. Eye ointments/ lubricants at night prevents recurrence

Do Not
1. Do not rub eyes during healing phase
2. This may destroy the newly forming cells
3. Repatching may then be necessary
4. Do not wear contact lens till cured

1. Small corneal abrasions heal quickly
2. Blurriness may last for a few weeks
3. Permanent loss of sight is rare
4. Occasionally abrasions may recur

1. Always follow instructions while using contact lens
2. Do not wear contact lens for too long
3. Remove lens if irritation /dryness occurs
4. Do not rub eyes too hard
5. Wash hands whenever required
6. Trim your nails regularly
7. Be careful while using ‘glitter’ make up
8. Wear protective gears while sporting


What is Cut?
An injury due to opening in the skin

Minor Cuts / Scrapings
1. No treatment is required
2. Care required to prevent infection

Treatment for Minor Cuts
1. Clean wound with water
2. Avoid soap
3. Remove dirt/debris in the wound
4. Apply antibiotic ointment
5. Dress/ bandage the wound
6. Change dressing daily
7. Minor cuts stop bleeding in10 min
8. Apply gentle pressure if bleeding persists

Deep cuts
1. May bleed heavily
2. May expose underlying tissues

Treatment For Deep Cuts
1. May require stitching
2. Requires Tetanus Toxoid (TT) if:
Cut is dirty or has debris
TT taken 5 years ago
3. Consult a doctor in case of:
Delayed wound- healing
Pus Discharge

Points to note
1. Do not try to clean a major wound
2. Do not remove deeply- lodged debris
3. Do not breathe on an open wound
4. Do not push back exposed body parts


What is Dandruff?
1. White flakes of dead skin
2. Dandruff mostly affects scalp
3. Not a health hazard but a nuisance

1. Itchy, scaly scalp

1. A fungus, Malassezia
2. It feeds on scalp’s natural oils
3. Produces acid which causes itch
4. Other factors-
Hormone production
Oily skin
Food habits

1. Use anti-dandruff, conditioner-based shampoo
2. Rinse scalp for 5 minutes with shampoo
3. If resistant, apply 1 % hydrocortisone cream
4. If severe, consult a dermatologist /trichologist

1. Cannot be prevented but managed
2. Use good quality shampoo
3. Wash hair frequently
4. Avoid using gels/ waxes
5. Eat a healthy diet

Related infections
1. Psoriasis, Impetigo, Tinea capitis


About Dislocation
1. An injury which forces bones out of their sockets
2. Dislocation is a common sports injury
3. It temporarily deforms or immobilizes the joint

1. Usually caused by a trauma like a fall/blow
2. Rheumatoid arthritis also causes dislocation

1. Pain
2. Tenderness
3. Difficulty to move injured part
4. Swelling
5 Discoloration

1. Call medical help as soon as possible
2. Do not move the joint or try to place it back
3. Place ice to control swelling
4. If skin is cut, clean gently and bandage with sterile gauze
5 Sling or splint the injury in its original position
6. If injury is serious, check for breathing
7. If not breathing, provide Cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) Elevate the feet up to 12 inches
8 Cover the patient with a blanket

1. Wear protective gear while sporting
2. Make home environment safe
3. Teach safe habits to children
4. Do not stand on chairs or other unstable objects
5 Exercise care while using bath oils
6. Make use of hand rails while using the stairs


1. Fever is higher-than-normal body temperature (Normal temparature-370C or 98.60F)
2. Indicates an abnormal process in the body
3. Fever is a symptom and not disease
4. Also called ‘pyrexia’
5 Low fever:98.80F to 100.80F
6. Mild to moderate:1010F to 1030F
7. High fever:1040F and above

1. Hot weather
2. Childhood immunization
3. Bacterial/viral infection
4. Spending much time in sun
5 Allergy to medication / food

1. Hot flushed face
2. Lack of interest in food
3. Nausea
4. Vomiting
5. Head and body ache
6. Constipation
7. Diarrhea
8. High fever maybe associated with –

1. Monitor temperature using a thermometer
2. Remove the excess clothing
3. Keep the person in a cool place
4. Give a sponge bath in luke warm water
5 Give plenty of fluids
6. Give prescribed doses of acetaminophen /paracetamol
7. Do not give aspirin to a person with fever
8. Do not wrap the person in blankets / warm clothing
9. Consult a Doctor in case of –
Irregular breathing
Stiff neck
Persistent sore throat
Painful urination

Food Borne Illness

1. Occurs by eating contaminated food
2. Brought about by bacterial/viral/ parasitic toxins
3. Bacteria is most common cause of food contamination
4. Bacteria is present in most raw food
5. Raw meat /poultry/ sea food/ eggs: increased risk
6. Tomatoes/sprout /lettuceare also contamination-prone
7. Contamination occurs between production and preparation
8. Children/pregnant women/ elderlcy/immuno-deficient at greater risk

1. Resembles intestinal flu
2. Lasts for few days or weeks

Common Symptoms are
Abdominal cramps
Diarrhea, which may be bloody

Common Symptoms are
Shallow breath
Rapid pulse
Pale skin
Chest pain
Severity may lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome, in children
Deaths may occur due to severe complications

1. Most cases are mild and are treated by taking fluids
2. Fluids may be taken orally or intravenously
3. Severe cases must be hospitalized

1. Wash hands well before preparing food
2. Clean surfaces and kitchen counters before cooking
3. Cook food at appropriate temperatures enough to kill bacteria
3. Refrigerate food within two hours of cooking
Allow enough space in fridge for cool air circulation

Foreign Object In The Ear

1. Any outside object lodged inside ear canal
2. Not dislodged easily
3. An ‘Otoscope’ is used to identify object

1. On purpose, e.g., a cotton swab used for cleaning
2. Accidental, especially among children
3. An insect that may have crept into the ear

1. Feeling of uneasiness/ discomfort
2. Pain
3. Dizziness
4. Infection
5. Discharge/blood oozing from ear
6. Dry cough, occasionally
7. Insect may bite/cause tickling sensation

1. If object is protruding, use tweezers to remove
2. If object is small, shake head with ear facing downward
3. If it is insect, turn head to place affected ear upward
4. Place few drops of mineral oil/baby oil inside ear
5. Flush the insect out using clean water
6. Use oil only in case of insect
7. Otherwise it may lead to swelling
8. Seek medical help if required

Steps to Avoid
1. Do not push your finger into the ear
2. Do not strike the head to dislodge object
3. Do not shake a child to remove object
4. Do not try to remove object on your own
5. Do not block any discharge from ear
6. Do not try to clean the ears

Consult a doctor
1. If the object is not soft
2. If the object cannot be removed easily

1. There may be no problems once object is removed
2. Trying to remove object may tear the ear drum
3. This may lead to hearing loss

1. Avoid using objects like tissues/ tooth pick to clean ears
2. Do not place anything inside ear without consulting doctor
3. Monitor children’s actions

Foreign Object In The Eye

1. Any object that lodges itself in the eye
2. Small objects will be washed out by tears / blinking
3. Others need medical attention

1. Dust
2. Debris
3. Sand
4. Contact lens
5. Eye lash
6. Make up
7. Flying objects like glass

1. Itching
2. Irritation
3. Pain
4. Sensitivity to bright light
5. Blurry vision

1. Wash hands before helping the victim
2. Seat the person in a lighted area
3. Gently examine the eye
4. Pull lower eyelid downward
5. Ask the person to look upward
6. Then hold upper eyelid while person looks down
7. If object is floating try flushing it out
8. Otherwise, touch the object with wet cotton bud
9. Object should cling to the cotton bud
10. If object is removed, flush eyes with saline/warm water
11. If object cannot be removed, see a doctor
12. If object is embedded, do not touch
13. Cover the eyes with paper cups and tape it
14. Consult doctor immediately

Steps to Avoid
1. Avoid rubbing eyes
2. Do not remove an embedded object
3. Do not try to remove a large object

Consult a doctor
1. When the object cannot be removed
2. When object is embedded
3. When the person’s vision is affected
4. When the scratching sensation persists
5. When pain persists even after removing object

1. Depends on type of object and mode of entry
2. Glass/sharp objects may damage eye

1. Wear protective eye gear at work, if necessary
2. Wear protective gears while playing sports
Exercise caution if using contact lens

Foreign Object In The Nose

1. Any outside object inserted into nose
2. Usually children are the affected ones
3. During play, they insert small objects into nostrils

1. Food particles
2. Erasers
3. Dried seeds
4. Objects, like crayons
5. Beads
6. Buttons

1. Irritation
2. Infection
3. Foul smelling / bloody discharge from nose
4. Breathing difficulty
5. Beads
6. Buttons

1. The person must be urged to breathe through mouth
2. The person should avoid breathing with force
3. Close the unaffected nostril
4. Blow out gently through the affected nostril
5. Get medical aid if this method fails

Steps to Avoid
1. Do not probe an object which is not seen
2. Do not probe an object that is not easy to grasp
3. Do not blow nose too hard
4. Do not use sharp instruments to remove the object

Consult a doctor
1. When the object cannot be removed
2. When the victim suffers from infection

1. No problem expected once the object is removed

1. Children must be trained not to put objects in body openings
Small objects must be kept out of reach of children

Foreign Object In The Skin

When object is lodged in the skin layers

1. It may be embedded superficially or deeply

1. Caused by glass
2. Wood splinters
3. Fiber glass

1. Irritation
2. Pain
3. Abscess

1. Wash hands well
2. Clean the affected area using soap, water
3. If object is visible above skin, squeeze the area around
4. When object pops out, remove using sterile tweezer
5. If embedded under skin, use a sterile needle
6. Sterilize needle by flaming/wiping with alcohol
7. Use needle to break skin over affected area
8. Lift tip of the object
9. Use a small tweezer to pull it out
10. Gently squeeze the area and let bleed
11. Clean the area with soap, water. Pat dry
12. Apply an antibiotic

Steps to Avoid
1. Do not wet if the object is of wood
2. Wet wooden objects swell- becomes difficult to remove

Consult a doctor
1. If the object is difficult to remove
2. If the object is close to a sensitive body part, like the eye
3. In case of infection

Foreign Object When Swallowed

1. Most objects swallowed will be eliminated naturally
2. Sharp objects/objects like battery are dangerous
3. Sharp objects should be removed
4. Can happen to all ages
5. Common in children of 1-3 years

1. Certain food like popcorn
2. Coins
3. Small toys
4. Small objects like buttons, beads

1. Coughing
2. Difficulty in breathing
3. Wheezing

1. If breathing is difficult, do Heimlich maneuver
2. Seek medical help as quickly as possible
3. On someone else
Stand behind the person
Tilt the person a little forward
Make a fist with one hand
Place it just above the navel
Hold the fist with the other hand
Give a hard upward thrust into the abdomen
Repeat if required
4. On Oneself
Make fist with one hand
Place fist above navel
Hold it with other hand
Bend over a hard surface like a chair
Hold the fist with the other hand
Give hard upward thrust
Repeat if required

1. Do not give potentially dangerous food to children
2. Give small pieces of food to children
3. Avoid laughing / talking when eating


What is fracture?
1. A broken or cracked bone
2. Occurs when pressure is applied to bone
3. Occurs with / without displacement of bone fragments

1. Open fracture: Skin breaks causing open wound
2. Closed fracture: Skin not broken
3. Complicated fractures: Damage of adjacent organs
4. Stress fracture: Hairline crack due to repeated stress
5. Greenstick fracture: In children’s flexible bones

1. Severe pain
2. Difficulty in movement
3. Swelling/ bruising / bleeding
4. Deformity / abnormal twist of limb
5. Tenderness on applying pressure

1. Depends on type & location of fracture
2. For open fractures
Control bleeding before treatment
Rinse and dress the wound
3. For open / closed fractures
Check the breathing
Calm the person
Examine for other injuries
Immobilize the broken wound
Apply ice to reduce pain / swelling
Consult a doctor

1. Massage the affected area
2. Straighten the broken bone
3. Move without support to broken bone
4. Move joints above / below the fracture
5. Give oral liquids / food

1. Wear protective pads / helmets when driving
Teach children / practice, safe habits

Frost Bite

1. Frostbite is damage caused by extreme cold to skin / tissues
2. At -15C or below, blood vessels constrict to preserve body temperature
3. When this state persists, tissue injury occurs
4. Frost bite usually affects tissues which are distant from the heart
5. It also occurs in tissues that are most exposed to cold
5. The organs that are usually affected are –
6. Care should be taken to prevent permanent tissue damage

Risk Factors
1. Diabetes
2. Peripheral neuropathy
3. Use of beta-blockers

1. Skin Discolorations
2. Loose skin
3. Tingling/burning sensation
4. Partial/Complete numbness
5. In severe cases,
Dry gangrene followed by amputation

1. Get medical help as soon as possible. Meanwhile
2. Wrap the affected area using clean cloth
3. If no medical help is forthcoming –
Move the victim to a warm place
Treat hypothermia first. Cover the person well
Keep the frost-bitten site in warm but not in hot water
This should be done till sensations returns

Steps to Avoid
1. Do not rub / massage the affected area
2. Avoid treatment if a second round of cold exposure is anticipated
3. Treatment followed by freezing causes extensive damage

1. Avoid –
Extreme cold
Wet clothes
Chilly Wind
2. During cold weather, wear several layers of clothing
3. Wear accessories like-
Mittens, not gloves
Two pairs of socks
Hat / scarves to cover both ears well
4. Get enough food and rest
5. Avoid alcohol immediately before exposure to cold
6. Avoid cotton clothing

Gastric Problems

What are Gastric Problems?
1. Occurs in stomach / oesophagus
2. Disturbance of gastric mucosa leads to acid secretion
3. Acids contact stomach nerve endings
4. Causes pain / discomfort

1. May be acute / chronic
2. Acute gastric problem reduces quickly
3. Chronic gastric problems lead to ulcers

1. Physical and mental stress can also cause ulceration
2. Causes of gastric mucosa inflammation:
Acidic foods

Drugs which causes gastric trouble
1. Aspirin
2. Nicotine
3. Corticosteroids
4. Erythromycin
5. Beta- Blockers

1. Constant Pain
2. Indigestion
3. Nausea
4. Vomiting
5. Loss of appetite
6. Diarrhea

1. Hot Spicy foods
2. Alcohol
3. Smoking
4. Excessive eating
5. Large meals before bed
6. Fatty food
7. Pulse
8. Late nights

1. Acute problems resolve spontaneously
2. Chronic problems should be treated
3. Drugs for treatment include:
H2 antagonists
Proton pump inhibitors
4. Timely meals relieves pain due to ulcers
5. Consult – Gastroenterologist.


1. Gastroenteritis is inflammation of stomach and intestines
2. Can affect- any one, any age, any time
3. Symptoms prominent in children
4. Depending on cause, it may last for a day or a week
5. Use of drugs like aspirin can increase the risk

1. Bacteria contaminated food / water
2. Viral infection
3. Stress
4. Irregular/ improper diet
5. Tobacco or substance abuse
6. Reaction to a new food
7. Reaction to medication

1. Vomiting
2. Nausea
3. Diarrhea
4. Cramps/Abdominal pain
5. Dehydration
6. Weakness
7. Fever/Chills, occasionally

1. Adequate rest is advised
2. Drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration
3. Gradually eat easy -to-digest food
4. Avoid diary products
5. Avoid eating if nauseated
6. Do not give water to a child with gastroenteritis
7. Give other prescribed rehydration liquids
8. Or give a mixture of salt and glucose in water
9. Consider nursing the baby
10. Consider acetaminophen for relief
11. Avoid acetaminophen in case of liver disease
12. Avoid aspirin

Consult a doctor
1. Vomiting/Diarrhea persists
2. Diarrhea is bloody
3. Acute dehydration occurs
4. Fever persists


1. A condition where pain occurs in the head
2. Most common of pain complaints
3. Majority of headaches harmless, require no treatment
4. Some are indications of an underlying disorder

1. Tension
2. Stress
3. Straining the eye
4. Sinus infection
5. Dehydration
6. Ice cream
7. Sex
8. Thunder
9. Withdrawal from caffeine/drugs
10. Brain related
Head injury

1. Vascular headache
e.g. – Migraine, fever headaches, high blood pressure
Pain on one/both side of head
Stomach upset
Difficulty in seeing
Common in women
2. Muscular headache
e.g. Tension headache
Tightening of facial/neck muscles
Radiate to forehead
3. Cervicogenic headache
e.g Spondylitis
4. Inflammatory headaches
e.g Sinusitis

1. Most headaches treated with pain killer
2. Common medications- acetaminophen/paracetamol/aspirin
3. Tension headache treated by lowering body temperature
This is achieved by taking a cool shower
4. If recurrent, keep a headache diary
This helps to identify the cause
5. Chronic use of painkillers causes ‘rebound headaches’
6. Complementary treatments like chiropractic care, effective

Consult a doctor
1. If – Headache is recurrent and persistent
2. If – Headache occurs with
Memory loss/confusion
Loss of consciousness
Stiff Neck

1. Caffeine, a vasoconstrictor, is used to prevent severe migraine
2. Supplements with magnesium, vit B12 and Q10 used for prevention

Head Trauma

1. Head trauma is an injury that affects the brain / skull
2. Injuries range from minor to serious
3. Head injury may be ‘closed’ or ‘penetrating’
4. ‘Closed’-when head hits against a blunt object
5. These injuries lead to concussion
6. ‘Penetrating’ – an object penetrates skull and enters brain

1. Road traffic accidents
2. Accidents at home / work
3. Assault
4. Fall
5. Sports

1. Loss of consciousness – for short or long duration
2. Bleeding
3. Vomiting
4. Fluid discharge from nose
5. Loss of hearing, vision, taste, smell
6. Speech-related problems
7. Irregular heart beat
8. Seizures
9. Paralysis
10. Coma
11. Change in personality
12. Mental health-related problems

1. For mild injury-
Apply ice to injured area to minimize swelling
The size of the bump is not related to the severity of injury
Observe the patient carefully for signs of bleeding
2. For moderate to severe injury-
Check the patient’s breathing pattern
If necessary do Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
In case of bleeding, press area with a clean cloth
If the cloth soaks, place a fresh cloth over the first one
Do not remove debris from the wound
If person is vomiting turn on the side and lower the head
To minimize spine injury – hold head, neck and body in one line
Immobilize the patient
If unconscious, treat it like a spinal injury
Keep the head in alignment with spine
Get immediate medical help

Consult a Doctor
1. When the following occur seek medical help
2. Bleeding
3. Fluid discharge from nose, mouth, ears
4. Vomiting
5. Loss of consciousness
6. Confusion / Restlessness / Irritability
7. Slurred speech / Convulsion
8. Blurred Vision
9. Low breathing
10. Low blood pressure / Severe headache
11. Fracture / Stiff neck
12. Loss of sensory abilities
13. Inability to move one or more limbs

Steps to Avoid
1. Avoid shaking or moving a person who has head injuries
2. Avoid washing the wound or removing debris
3. Do not remove helmet in case of head injury
4. Do not consume alcohol immediately after a head injury
5. Do not pick up a fallen child with head injury

1. Do not indulge in drunken driving
2. Practice safe methods while driving / sporting / other activities
3. Always follow safety rules
4. Supervise the activities of children

Heart Attack

What is heart attack?
1. Occurs when blood supply to vital organs gets blocked
2. >50years / menopausal women at greater risk
3. Occurs with / without chest pain
4. Sudden arrest of breathing / heart function
1. May result in cardiopulmonary arrest
2. Clot in the arteries blocks blood supply
3. Occurs due to:
Deposits of calcium / cholesterol
Hereditary factors
High blood pressure
Emotional stress
Inflammatory disease of arteries
Trauma / disease of heart

1. Chest pain
2. Shoulder/arm pain
3. Shortness of breath
4. Sweating
5. Heartburn
6. Nausea
7. Abdominal pain

First aid
1. Try to relax
2. Loosen tight clothes
3. Take medicines if any
4. Pain subsides within 3 min of medicine intake
5. If not, see a doctor.
6. Give artificial respiration if required
7. Give Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR):
If no pulse is detected
By placing palm on chest to pump
6. 15 pumps are followed by 2 artificial respiration
7. Continue till ambulance / doctor arrives

1. Routine health check-up
2. Avoid stress
3. Quit smoking / alcohol
4. Eat sensibly
5. Control blood pressure / diabetes
6. Control weight

Heat Cramps

1. Heat exhaustion is a heat – related disorder
2. Here, loss of fluids takes place
3. This decreases blood flow to vital organs, leading to shock

1. Heat exhaustion caused by excessive heat
2. Increased by overexertion / sweating / hot, humid climate

Risk Factors
1. Poor circulation
2. Recurrent Illness
3. Medications like diuretics / laxatives / anti histamines / anti depressants
4. Young children and older people at risk, even when inactive

1. Weakness / dizziness
2. Headache / nausea
3. Cold / moist skin
4. Paleness
5. Dry tongue / thirst
6. Vomiting
7. Loss of appetite
8. Excessive sweating
9. Rapid / weak heart beat
10. Fast / shallow breathing
11. Muscle fatigue
12. Cramps

A. Cooling the body
Remove the person to a shady place
Loosen tight-fitting clothing
Remove extra clothes
Cool the person by sponging with wet cloth / towel
B. Hydrating
Give fluids like sports drink / fruit or vegetable juices
Water containing electrolytes may be given
Give fluid every 15-20 minutes
Avoid coffee and alcohol

Consult A Doctor
1. If the symptoms don’t clear up in 30 minutes
2. Seek emergency help in case of
Physical collapse
Loss of consciousness

1. Do not indulge in drunken driving
2. Practice safe methods while driving / sporting / other activities
3. Always follow safety rules
4. Supervise the activities of children

Heat Exhaustion

1. Heat exhaustion is a heat – related disorder
2. Here, loss of fluids takes place
3. This decreases blood flow to vital organs, leading to shock

1. Heat exhaustion caused by excessive heat
2. Increased by overexertion / sweating / hot, humid climate

Risk Factors
1. Poor circulation
2. Recurrent Illness
3. Medications like diuretics / laxatives / anti histamines / anti depressants
4. Young children and older people at risk, even when inactive

1. Weakness / dizziness
2. Headache / nausea
3. Cold / moist skin
4. Paleness
5. Dry tongue / thirst
6. Vomiting
7. Loss of appetite
8. Excessive sweating
9. Rapid / weak heart beat
10. Fast / shallow breathing
11. Muscle fatigue
12. Cramps

A. Cooling the body
Remove the person to a shady place
Loosen tight-fitting clothing
Remove extra clothes
Cool the person by sponging with wet cloth / towel
B. Hydrating
Give fluids like sports drink / fruit or vegetable juices
Water containing electrolytes may be given
Give fluid every 15-20 minutes
Avoid coffee and alcohol

Consult A Doctor
1. If the symptoms don’t clear up in 30 minutes
2. Seek emergency help in case of
Physical collapse
Loss of consciousness

1. Do not indulge in drunken driving
2. Practice safe methods while driving / sporting / other activities
3. Always follow safety rules
4. Supervise the activities of children

Heat Stroke

1. Heat stroke is the most severe of all heat-related illness
2. Heat stroke could be life – threatening

1. Cooling mechanism of the body fails due to
Excessive humidity
Extreme heat
Activity in the hot sun
2. Internal body temperature rises, leading to stroke

Risk Factors
1. Dehydration
2. Infants & older people
3. People who work long hours, outdoor
4. Obesity
5. Impairment in sweat gland function
6. Cardiovascular disorder
7. Medications

1. Body temperature, greater than 1040F
2. Head ache
3. Dizziness
4. Confusion
5. Disorientation
6. Fatigue
7. Hot dry skin
8. Skin is moist, if stroke is due to exertion
9. Rapid / shallow breathing
10. Absence of sweating
11. Fluctuating blood pressure
12. Irritability
13. Confusion
14. Lack of consciousness / coma

1. Remove the person to a shady place
2. Cool the person by sponging with wet towel
3. Apply ice packs in armpits and groin
4. Water with electrolyte, fruit / vegetable juice should be given
5. Victim must be rested

1. Avoid outdoor activity during excessive heat
2. Drink plenty of fluids when working outdoors
3. During outdoor activity, splash your body frequently with water
4. Avoid alcohol / coffee / soda / alcohol
5. Wear light weight, light- colored, loose-fitting clothes
6. Protect yourself from the sun by wearing sun glasses and hat

Human Bites

1. Usually occurs when one person bites another
2. Comes in contact with another person’s teeth
3. Can be more dangerous than animal bite
4. Human bites has increased risk of infection
5. This is due to microbes present in the mouth
6. Risk of injury to tendons and joints also present
7. Very common among children

1. Puncture wounds on skin
2. Skin Breaks
3. Cuts
4. Bleeding

1. Calm the victim
2. If bleeding is not severe, wash the wound
3. Use a mild soap
4. Clean the wound in running water for 3-5 min
5. Apply an antibiotic cream
6. Dress the wound using sterile gauze
7. If the bleeding is severe, apply pressure to stop bleeding
8. Keep the wounded part in a slightly raised position
9. Get medical attention immediately
10. If not covered for tetanus – an injection is recommended

Consult a Doctor
1. All human bites must be evaluated by the doctor especially in case of-
Broken skin
Pus formation
If wound occurs near eye, on the face
If victim has weak immune system (as in AIDS, Cancer)

Steps to Avoid
1. Do not ignore human bites
2. Avoid placing the wound in the mouth

1. Avoid placing hand near the mouth of a seizure-affected person
2. Take caution to prevent your child from developing biting habit

Insect Bites and Stings

Insect bites are, mostly, not severe
Sometimes they cause a severe allergic reaction, anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis is life-threatening if not treated on time
Sting of bees, wasps, hornets / bite of fire ants, painful
Bites of insects, like mosquitoes, cause itching
The bite of a black widow spider can be fatal, if left untreated

Examples of biting insects

Examples of stinging insect

Localized Pain
Tingling sensation

Remove the stinger using a straight- edged object
Wash the area thoroughly with soap and water
Place ice wrapped in a cloth on the affected area
Repeat after every 10 minutes
Apply a gentle cream to prevent itching
Take anti histamines if necessary
Observe for signs of infection like pain, redness or swelling

In case of emergency-
Try to keep the person calm
Check the person’s breathing
Remove constricting items, like rings, from finger/nose/ears
Do Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), if necessary
If the person is carrying an emergency kit, use it
If required, treat the person for signs of shock
Seek medical help as soon as possible

Consult a Doctor in case of the following, seek medical help
Swelling on the face
Difficulty in breathing
Tight feeling in the throat
Body turning blue

Steps to Avoid
Do not remove the stinger using a tweezer
Do not apply a tourniquet
Aspirin, pain medications, should not be given unless advised by a doctor

Avoid placing hand near the mouth of a seizure-affected person
Take caution to prevent your child from developing biting habit


About Fainting
Fainting occurs due to decreased blood supply to brain
A fainting spell is usually very brief
It may or may not have medical significance

Common Causes
Emotional upset
Severe pain
Skipping meals
Standing up too fast
Standing for a long time in a crowd
Some medications
Blood Pressure

Before fainting, a person may experience the following:

Excessive sweating
Dim vision
Rapid heart beat or palpitations

Fainting is a medical emergency, till proven otherwise
When a person feels faint- Make them sit down or lie down
If sitting, position head between knees
When a person faints, position him on his back
Check to see if airways are clear
Restore blood flow by -Loosening clothing/belts/collars
Elevate feet above head level
Patient should become normal within a minute
If not, seek medical help
Check if breathing/pulse is normal
If not, do Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) Prevention
When symptoms appear, lie down
Try do avoid stress and anxiety
Carefully evaluate your medications
Take care of underlying medical conditions